Jumat, 01 Juni 2018

Unique Words - Bird Migration

Bird Migration

Migration is the regular movement of animals between their breeding grounds and the areas that they inhabit during the rest of the year. Many types of animals migrate, but bird migration in particular has fascinated observers for centuries. Migration is an excellent example of how nature has responded to the biological imperative for species to evolve and spread out into all possible ecological niches that can provide the conditions necessary for species to breed and raise young.
The most common form of bird migration involves traveling to higher latitudes to breed during the warm season and then returning to lower latitudes during the nonbreeding period. This form of migration allows birds to breed in areas that provide optimal conditions for nesting and feeding their young. Because of the way in which the continents are situated upon Earth, migration of this type takes place primarily into the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. No land birds are known to migrate into the higher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere; only species of seabirds migrate to the Southern Hemisphere to breed.
Although most bird migration takes place between the lower and higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, many species are transequatorial, living in the Northern Hemisphere during the breeding season and in the Southern Hemisphere during the remainder of the year. A well-known example of transequatorial migration is the arctic tern. This tern, which breeds in the arctic regions and winters in antarctic waters, travels 24,000 miles a year during migration.
Not all migration is long distance. Some species exhibit altitudinal migration. Their breeding areas are in higher elevations, near or at the peaks of mountains, and they spend the nonbreeding season in neighborting valleys or other nearby low country. this variety of migration is typical of many grouse species, including the ptarmigan, a type of arctic grouse. Many rock ptarmigan never leave the high arctic tundra, spending their breeding season a top windswept arctic peaks and the winter season in nearby valleys, enduring some of the coldest conditions on Earth.
During migration, most birds fly for a limited period each day, probably about six to eight hours, typically flying distances of several hundred miles. Some birds, however, undertake much longer flights when their routes include crossing large bodies of water or other geographic features such as deserts and mountains. For example, many species regularly cross the Gulf of Mexico, a trip that requires a continuous flight of more than 1,000 miles and takes from twenty-four to thirty-six hours or longer. An extreme example of nonstop bird migration is done by the miles from Alaska to New Zealand each year. At the start of its trip, about 55 percent of its body weight is made up of the fat necessary to fuel this amazing journey.
How birds manage to unerringly travel between distant locations is one aspect that has fascinated observers for centuries. Modern-day researchers have attempted to understand this feat. Most studies have found that migratory birds all have some ability to navigate and an innate drive to travel in a particular direction. Nocturnal migrants, those species that travel at night, seem to take their navigational cues from the stars. When the stars are obscured by clouds, nocturnal migrants may become confused and return to land or stray off course. Diurnal migrants, those migrating during the day, take their cues from the location of the sun. In addition, diurnal migrants have also been shown to use geographic features such as mountain ranges or seacoasts as other cues for navigation. Because the stars and the sun move constantly over the course of twenty-four hours, this suggests that migrating birds also have some sense of time.
(Source: Barrons; essential words for IELTS)
List of Unique Words:
(v) berkembang biak atau membiakkan
(adj) aktif di siang hari
(v) hidup dibawah kondisi yang sulit
(adj) tak terlindung dari angin
(v) menyediakan energi
(n) setengah dari bumi
(adj) sebuah prioritas; sesuatu yang mendesak; harus dipenuhi
(n) perpindahan dari suatu tempat ke tempat yang lain
(n) penemuan jalan dari suatu tempat ke tempat lain; ilmu pelayaran
(adj) aktif di malam hari
(n) orang yang mengamati sesuatu
(v) menjadikan sulit untuk dilihat
(adj) kondisi terbaik; yang paling menguntungkan
(n) tipe; sebuah kelompok dasar dalam kelasifikasi biologis/hayati
(v) meninggalkan rute yang benar; menjadi terpisah dari kelompok/ mengembara

Written by Erna, S.P
Editor: Imam Safrullah

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