Kamis, 03 Mei 2018

Unique Words - Environmental Impacts of Logging

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Environmental Impacts of Logging

From shipping crates to paper bags, the logging industry supplies the raw materials for an array of products. However, this is not without untold harm to the environment. The damage includes habitat loss, pollution, and climate change, with the effects spanning the globe from the rainforests of Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America to the northern forests of Canada and Scandinavia. The effects of logging extend beyond just the feeling of a swath of trees. Nutrients, water, and shelter for plants, animals, and microorganisms throughout the ecosystem are also lost; many life forms both terrestrial and aquatic are becoming endangered as forests vanish.
Trees protect the soil beneath them: thus, tree loss can affect soil integrity. For example, the rainforest floor, home to myriad plant life as well as insects, worms, reptiles and amphibians, and small mammals, relies on a dense canopy of branches and leaves to keep it healthy and intact. The canopy prevents surface runoff by intercepting heavy rainfall so that water can drip down slowly onto the porous earth. Tree roots also stabilize the soil and help prevent erosion. In return, a healthy soil encourages root development and microbial activity, which contribute to tree growth and well-being. A major factor in logging-related soil damage comes from road building, with trucks and other heavy equipment compressing the spongy soil, creating furrows where water collects, and disrupting the underground water flow. Eventually, the topsoil wears away, leaving behind an infertile layer of rocks and hard clay.
Logging can also damage aquatic habitats. Vegetation along rivers and stream banks helps maintains a steady water flow by blocking the entry of soil and other residue, and tree shade inhabits the growth of algae. Remove trees obliterates these benefits. When eroding soil flows into waterways, the organic matter within it consumes more oxygen, which can lead to oxygen depletion in the water, killing fish and other aquatic wildlife.
Trees provide a natural defense against air pollution. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while they emit oxygen, and their leaves filter pollutants from the air. Cutting down trees keeps pollutants airborne, where they can mix with water vapor and form acid rain. Water quality in nearby streams and rivers also deteriorates as tree loss contributes to increased sedimentation.
In a healthy forest ecosystem, trees draw moisture from the soil and release it into the atmosphere while they provide shade to lessen evaporation. Thus, deforestation impacts rainfall patterns, leading to flooding as well as drought and forest fires. Deforestation is responsible for about one-fifth of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, making it a major contributor to climate change-in particular, global warming. In the Amazon basin alone, deforestation is responsible for millions of tons of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere annually. Some logging companies bum large tracts of forest just to facilitate access to one area a practice that discharges even more carbon dioxide.
Forests, especially the tropical rain forests, are a vital natural resource with extensive biodiversity and irreplaceable wildlife habitats. More responsible logging practices would help ensure that they are protected for future generations.
(Source: Barrons; essential words for IELTS)


List of Unique Words:
1
Aquatic
(adj) hidup di air
2
Array
(n) dalam jumlah yang besar, sebuah koleksi
3
Defense
(n) perlindungan
4
Deforestation
(n) pemindahan banyak pohon dalam jumlah besar atau penggundulan hutan
5
Environment
(n) dunia alami atau lingkungan hidup
6
Erosion
(n) hilangnya tanah yang disebabkan oleh air dan angin
7
Extend
(v) memperpanjang, memperluas
8
Fell
(v) menebang, memotong: menebang pohon
9
Habitat
(n) daerah/lahan alami dimana tumbuhan atau hewan hidup
10
Impact
(n) efek/dampak kuat dari suatu aktivitas
11
Inhibit
(v) mencegah, memperlambat suatu peristiwa
12
Logging
(n) pemotongan pepohonan untuk tujuan komersial/ekonomi
13
Nutrient
(n) makanan atau zat yang dibutuhkan makhluk hidup
14
Pollution
(n) zat berbahaya untuk air, udara, dll
15
Terrestrial
(adj) hidup di daratan
16
Vegetation
(n) tumbuhan-tumbuhan



Written by Erna, S.P
Editor : Imam Safrullah
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